Test Cases in Software Testing with Examples

Test Cases in Software Testing with Examples

At one point or another, we all have had our share of experiences with harmful software.

Software bugs can lead to many problems in your system. They not only make the user feel irritated but also can harm the brand image of your company. An uncountable number of people have lost their patience because of bugs or software malfunctions while using the software. Thus, it becomes imperative to prevent those situations by thoroughly testing the software you are launching in the market. This can be done with the help of test cases.

Software testing is an integral part of any developer’s life. Whether you are a programmer or a tester, imagining your work without test cases is almost impossible. So the question arises: “What exactly is a software test case?”

Let’s see what a software test case is and how to write compelling test cases.

What Is a Software Test Case?

The software test is a set of conditions that define the process of testing the feature or area of the software. However, software test cases are not just for testing. They can also be used to explore the capabilities of the software.

When test cases fail, they highlight the part where the defect exists so that the developers can eliminate it.

A test case that pushes system boundaries can help understand the software’s behavior and performance. This approach can also help identify potential improvement and innovation areas, leading to more robust and user-friendly software.

An excellent test case has these attributes:

  1. Accuracy: The test has a clear purpose.
  2. Tracing: It can be used numerous times.
  3. Re-usability: Can be reused when needed.
  4. Concision: The description is straightforward. One reading is enough to understand the test's purpose.
  5. Independent: Good tests can be performed in any order without depending on other cases.


Test Case Vs. Test Scenario: Similar Yet Different

Although both terms are used interchangeably, they have different scopes.

A test scenario describes all the possibilities. On the other hand, a test case covers only one area within the test scenario.

Let us understand this through an example of a test case for an e-commerce system:

  • Check the system behavior when a user adds products to a cart
  • Check the system behavior when the user removes the product from the cart.
  • Check the behavior when users add payment and other details.

Example of a test case scenario for an e-commerce platform:

  1. Check the payments function.
  2. Check the search feature.
  3. Check the login system.


Types of Software Test Cases in Software Testing

Test cases differ according to the type of test. Here are a few essential software test types.

Functional Test Cases

Functional test cases check the specific function or feature of the software to see if it produces the expected results. For instance, you want to check the login system. A functional test case here will cover whether a user can log in to the system successfully.

Integration Test

Standard software comprises several modules coded by different developers. Hence, the integration test case aims to check the defects in the interaction between these modules.

Here’s a scenario, suppose your software has three systems: a login system and a mailbox, and delete the email. The integration test case will cover whether they are transferred to the mailbox after the user logs in. Also, if a user deletes an email, the email should appear in the trash.

Performance Test

This test case describes the type of users and the number of users that will check the performance of the software. Example: You want to check whether software can handle the number of requests at a particular time.

Security Test

A security test case is written to uncover vulnerabilities within the system. For instance, writing a test case to check whether sensitive data is encrypted from unauthorized access.

Usability Test

The primary goal of the usability test case is to check whether the software is easy for the end user to use. For instance, check if the software design meets disability standards.

Now that you have learned what software test case is and their types let’s understand how to write them.

How to Write Test Cases for Software Testing?

Step 1: Define the Objective. This will include the area or part of the software you want to test. Testing the login system.

Step 2: Identity Test Inputs. List of things required for the test to run. For example, a test for a login system will need a username and password.

Step 3: Define Expected Outputs. Mention the expected results after running the test.

Step 4: Set Preconditions. A precondition tells the tester what must be valid for the test to be successful.

Step 5: Prepare a List. List out efforts to execute the test.

Step 6: Verify the Real-time Result with the Expected Output. For example, with a login system, does the software redirect users to the main page?

Step 7: Document the process. Documentation will list all the information, such as how many test cases have been performed, who performed it, which test failed, which passed, etc.

Having everything documented in one place saves everyone’s time. Use test case management software to record and manage the test cases in one place.

Some of the best software include Qase, SPIRATEST by Inflectra, TestFLO for JIRA, Testpad, XQual, Zephyr Scale, and Zephyr Squad.

Step 8: Review and Refine. Now that you have documented the entire test case process find the areas of improvement and refine them for the best results.

Test Case Example

  • Test Case ID: TC0001
  • Test Scenario: To Authenticate successful log-in to the software
  • Test Steps:
    • Users navigate to the login page.
    • User enters an email address and password.
    • Clicks on the sign-in.
  • Prerequisites: Registered ID and password
  • Test Data: Username and password
  • Expected/Intended Results: Once the user successfully logs in to the system, the web page should redirect the user to the software.
  • Actual Results: As expected.
  • Test Status – Pass/Fail: Pass

Mistakes to Avoid While Writing Test Cases

  1. Making test cases too specific
  2. Limiting test cases according to user roles.
  3. Not categorizing test cases.
  4. Poor test cases are too dependent on the internal working of the software and hence will break if there is an internal change.
  5. Confusing between unit test and integration test.
  6. Your test cases do not consider end users.
  7. Need to write more test cases to cover most areas of the system.
  8. Last, not maintaining the test cases as the software changes.

Also Read - Test Scenarios for Login Page

Build Your Own Talent Software Test Development Team with Clarion Technologies

In conclusion, testing is essential for ensuring the product's quality, no matter what kind of software you are working on — mobile applications, desktop applications, websites, or any other business application that runs without a server. You need to ensure that your product does what it is supposed to do and is used for its intended purpose. Creating practical software test cases is crucial to the software development process. It helps identify defects and errors early on and ensures that the software meets the required specifications and functions correctly.

No code is perfect and human errors can creep into even the most carefully-written code. However, a set of carefully developed test cases will allow you to ferret out weak points in the system which could otherwise have gone unnoticed. It is this level of efficiency and focus Clarion Technologies, a leader in offshore web development solutions, can bring in.

Our experienced test case writers uncover the most profound flaws in the system so that you can launch an error-free product, stay market confident and win the confidence of your customers and scale confidently.


Author Bio: Binny is a seasoned content marketer in the tech field. With a strong passion for storytelling, she understands digital marketing through creative content strategies. She deeply understands the customer journey and knows how to craft thoughtful content that inspires action. Binny continues to thrive in her role, using her skills to help demystify complex tech concepts for a broader audience.

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